An Introduction to Cyber Crime

    About the Article

    The Internet, computers, mobile phones, and other systems of technology have transformed all part of human life over quite a few decades, including how we interconnect, banking, shopping, acquire the update, and amuse ourselves. These high-tech progressions have also created numerous prospects for criminals to commit several forms of offences. Online misconducts are frequently denoted to as cybercrime and happen because ‘the committer uses distinct knowledge of cyberspace’.

    Cybercrime can thus be regarded as a huge canopy term that covers computer-assisted crime in which computers and technology are used in an auxiliary part, such as the use of a computer to send distressing emails. At the same time, the term cybercrime also includes computer-focused offences that are a direct consequence of computer technology and would not happen without it, such as unsanctioned computer system intruding. This article will forecast cybercrime, importance, challenges and its categories.

    INTRODUCTION

    In general, cybercrime may be defined as “Any unlawful act where a computer or communication device or computer network is used to commit or facilitate the commission of the crime”. These crimes are mostly committed with the intent of making money through coercion or stealing data and selling them to undesirable parties or opponent parties. But these crimes are not only committed to obtaining monetary benefits. There can also be other private reasons and political reasons. Some of these crimes are committed to giving a threat to national security also. There are different kinds of cybercrimes. Some of the examples are phishing, spam, hacking, cyberbullying, identity theft, bank frauds etc.           

    WHAT IS CYBER CRIME?

    Most people are aware of the idea of cybercrime, but may not comprehend the full consequences or the full cost of cybercrime. Hacking for the purposes of acquiring monetary or private data is perhaps one of the most well-known kinds of cybercrime, but it is far from being the only type of cybercrime, any kind of illegitimate action that takes place through digital or electronic sources. Information theft is one of the most common kinds of cybercrime, but cybercrime also embraces a varied array of intentional illegal activity as well, such as cyberbullying or embedding worms or viruses. Cybercrimes can be divided into two different types: those that cause deliberate injury and those that cause unintended injury. In most cases, the injury is monetary but not always.

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    Cyberbullying, for instance, is illegitimate when it creates a risk to an individual’s corporal security, involves intimidation or exhibits hatred or prejudice against certain secured populaces. In such a situation, the injury is not monetary, but it is still a crime. The unintended injury might comprise a resentful employee embedding an “innocuous” virus that disturbs occupation in any way. While it may not cause the same abrupt economic injury as thieving trademarked or economic information, it still causes security monetary damage due to both lost operative time and whatever money the company has to employ to fix the issue.

    TYPES OF CYBER CRIMES

    There are various types of cyber-crimes committed through different means of technology.  Technology development in society is making lives easier as well as creating more opportunities for offenders committing cybercrime. Cybercrimes are becoming a major risk these days.  Cybercrimes take various forms, and it is consequently becoming tough to fight. Common forms of cybercrimes include the following:

    HACKING

    Hacking can be said as the crime committed by detecting the weakness of the network systems of computers for accessing the data in the systems. Computers have become a part of every business, They store a huge amount of personal, business and also sensitive data of a person, country or a business. Offenders of hacking are called hackers. Hackers commit such crime by obtaining someone’s data from their personal computer without their knowledge and use it for monetary benefits. These crimes are mostly committed for financial reasons, business rivalries etc.

    IDENTITY THEFT

    Identity theft or identity fraud is an offence committed through which a person’s personal identification details are stolen to imitate as that of the real person. Identity theft is of two types. One is true to name theft and the other is the account takeover theft.  True name theft is when the offender steals a person’s personal details for the purpose of creating a new account on that name like opening a new bank account, getting a new cellular network etc. whereas account takeover is when the offender uses the stolen personal details to get access to the existing account. There are other types of identity theft also some of the most common types of identity theft include the following. Financial identity theft is when it is done for monetary benefits. Medical identity theft is where a health claim or insurance number is stolen to make a false claim on the behalf of the real holder. Synthetic identity theft is when the offender steals personal info partially from one person or from different persons and combines to make a new identity to get a credit card, SIM card etc. Child identity theft is where the social security number of a child is stolen to defraud. Child identity often goes unnoticed for a long time. Criminal identity theft is when an offender surrenders the stolen identity as his own identity to the police or the court. This in return affects the victim instead of the offender.

    PHISHING

    Phishing is a technique of attempting to get private info by means of misleading or deceiving emails and websites. This crime is often committed through a false representation as a bank official asking for bank details like ATM pin number, bank account details through mails or phone calls.

    CYBER GROOMING AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY

    With the advent of internet users around the world, pornography has become a major issue in society. Cyber grooming is when a person often an adult befriends a child through various social media and gains trust of the child with an intention of involving them sexual activities or for sexual abuse. Child pornography has widely increased due to such cyberbullying and cyber grooming.

    Cyber crime isn’t limited to the above-mentioned types. There are many more crimes committed through the internet and computers. 

    IMPORTANCE OF CYBERSECURITY AND ITS CHALLENGES

    Cybersecurity is vital as government, military, company, economic, and healthcare administrations gather, progress, and save unparalleled amounts of information on processors and other devices. A substantial share of that information can be delicate data if that be intellectual property, monetary information, private data, or other kinds of information for which unsanctioned admittance or revelation could have undesirable results. Institutions diffuse delicate information across systems and to other devices in the progression of doing trades, and cybersecurity describes the discipline devoted to shielding that data and the networks used to progress or save it. As the capacity and erudition of cyber-attacks nurture, businesses and firms, exclusively those that are aimed at protecting data concerning the state’s safety, healthcare, or economic accounts, need to take steps to shield their delicate commercial and employee’s data. The state’s top intelligence bureaucrats alerted that cyber-attacks and digital snooping are the topmost menaces to state safety, eclipsing even violence. For efficient cyber safety, an organization needs to manage its efforts all over its whole data structure. 

    The most problematic challenge in cyber safety is the ever-evolving feature of safety threats themselves. Customarily, corporations and the government have engrossed most of their cyber safety resources on perimeter security to guard only their most vital structure mechanisms and protect against known dangers. Today, this tactic is inadequate, as the pressures develop and vary more rapidly than corporations can retain up with. As a consequence, advice-giving organizations encourage more practical and adaptive methods for cyber safety. Correspondingly, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) issued guiding principles in its menace valuation agenda that endorse a change toward constant monitoring and simultaneous assessments, a data-focused method to safety as contrasting to the traditional perimeter-based model.

    HOW CAN WE PREVENT?

    The best method to guard ourselves against cybercrime is to use sensible digital conducts. Here are a few rational surfing habits that will aid us to secure ourselves every day:

    • Beware of electronic mail with unclear links or attachments which we don’t suppose.
    • Avoid downloading anything from unfamiliar sources.
    • Crisscross to make certain that it is an authentic site before giving any private data.
    • Update your software always because they may fix security dangers
    • Avoid using unsecured public Wi-Fi in public places without a VPN.
    • Always have a strong and exceptional code word and avoid using the same password for multiple accounts.
    • Use two-factor verification each and every time possible.
    • Enhance router security to guard home networks.

    CYBER AWARENESS

    Cybersecurity awareness is the blend of both knowledge and action to shield a trade’s data possessions and also for another personal or public wellbeing. When a corporation’s personnel are aware of cybersecurity, it means they comprehend what cyber intimidations are, the possible influence of a cyber-attack will have on their commercial activities and the initiatives essential to lessen jeopardy and avoid cyber-crime insightful their online desk.  Forming an ethos around cybersecurity awareness in the office doesn’t mean that you’ll be totally eliminating the danger of information theft or cyber-crime to the business. Malware has prospered, flattering more and more erudite as each novel aspect is advanced, and we assume to see the development and evolution of cyber-threats and malware to flourish. As new strains of malware grow, corporates need to safeguard that they’re executing the suitable safekeeping actions, educating their workforces and disregarding any feebleness that make them susceptible to an outbreak. A human blunder is an egregious exploit that can lead to penalties and severe commercial injury.

    CONCLUSION

    Today’s world is a technology world. We can say that our lives are almost dependent on technologies. The more we become hi-tech and digitalised the more we are exposed to the risk of cybercrimes. cyberspace is not always a safe place. It is very much necessary to be cautious and protective. The awareness among the groups, organization, and individuals about cybercrime, their attacks and the consequences along with the resolutions must be augmented. Each and every individual should be aware of the technology and make use of it appropriately. The key to protecting ourselves from cybercrime is to be cautious. Cybercrime incessant in different forms with the network is being used to carry out to make a criminal act. At last, as said by Jeh Johnson, “Cybersecurity is a shared responsibility and it boils down to this-in cybersecurity, the more systems we secure, the more secure we all are.”

    REFERENCES

    • https://cybercrime.gov.in/Webform/Crime_OnlineSafetyTips.aspx
    • https://www.iovation.com/topics/what-is-cybercrime-definition-and-examples-of-cybercrime
    • https://www.ogl.co.uk/the-importance-of-cyber-security-awareness
    • https://cybersecurity.springeropen.com/articles
    • https://www.digit.in/technology-guides/fasttrack-to-cyber-crime/the-12-types-of-cyber-crime.html
    • https://www.swierlaw.com/faqs/what-are-the-three-types-of-cyber-crimes-.cfm 
    • https://securitytrails.com/blog/types-of-cyber-crime

    By-  B.A. PRATHESHTA &  M. RASIKA | SASTRA Deemed to be University, Thanjavur

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