Education contributes to economic and social change, a country’s education policy at the school and college levels must be well developed and futuristic. To make it successful, different countries adopt different education systems that take into account tradition and culture and adopt different stages during their life cycle at the school and college education level. As we all know education is a personal growth of the human as well as the growth of the nation. The article is a detailed analysis of the New Education Policy 2020. “Education is the most powerful weapon which can be used to change the world” (Mandela, n.d.)
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“The main hope of a nation lies in the proper education of its youth” (Roterodamus, n.d.)
What is education policy? The set of rules and regulation, policies as well as the principal made by the government in our education system called education policy. There are many forms in India where education policy occurs for purposes. For e.g., kindergarten, 10th and 12th grade, colleges and universities, Under graduation and Postgraduation.
Education policies are the part from the beginning of the growth as well as the education of the children. Not only children, each human’s part of the life. Education policy is helpful for both teaching and learning part. Each universities, colleges, school, competitive exams or training, education policies have the main role. Without it, there will be lack of structure and functions in the institutions.
After the India independence in 1947, the government promote various programmed to address the problem of illiteracy. In India the first and the foremost policy on education announced in 1968 under the governance of Indira Gandhi. This national policy of education 1968 also called the “radical restricting”. Main agenda of this policy is equality. This policy stated that there should be a compulsory education for all the children up to the age of 14. This policy mainly focuses on the three languages, english, hindi, and the official state language. This policy also encourages the ancient language which is called Sanskrit.
In 1986, the new National Policy of Education was introduced under the governance of Rajiv Gandhi. National policy of education 1986 mainly called as “special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunities’ ‘. This policy mainly focuses on not children but the women’s scheduled tribe and schedule castes. expansion of more scholarships, senior education and recruiting more jobs from SC’s are the main agenda of these policies.
In 1992, under the P.V. Narasimha Rao governance , prime minister Manmohan Singh adopted a new education policy in 2005 ,which was mainly based on “Common. Minimum Programme”. This policy mainly focuses on the entrance examination like JEE and AIEEE, SLEEEE for state level institutions, etc. this focuses on the professional standard of the education system.
Across the world, India became the 135th country to make the right to education a fundamental right of every child. The right to education act came into force on 1st April 2010 . Right to education act stated that there should be compulsory education to all children.
After that under the Modi government, in 2019, the Ministry of Human Resources Development released the draft of the new education policy 2019 . This draft mainly focuses on enhancing learning skill, thinking and experimental skill. The NEP 2019 is based on analysis-based learning . The Union cabinet approved the new national education policy on 29 July 2020 ,which is also called NEP 2020 after making several changes in the drafts. The NEP 2020 is a major third revamp of the framework of education. This policy mainly focuses on the changes in school to college level.
Key Points in NEP 2020
NEP 2020 focuses on the different fields of the education systems. Those changes in the NEP 2020 are –
- In school-level education , the current system of 10+2 is being replaced by a 5+3+3+4 structure for the age of 3-8,8-11,11-14, 14-18 years. In the 3-6 years age group, the school curriculum is called as the crucial stage for the development of the child mentally. The school children back into the mainstream through an open schooling system.
By 2030, the education from preschool to secondary school will be 100% of gross enrolment ratio in school education. Gross enrolment ratio refers to the number of students enrolled in the school at the different grade levels and compare with the ratio of the previous batch of the grade.
- The board examinations of the class 10th and 12th become more competencies and practical rather than memorized facts. It will be easier. And students are allowed to take the exam twice.
- All the extracurricular activities like music ,art and literature should be taught as a compulsory part in the colleges. All higher education institutions must have compulsory departments in languages, literature, art, dance, theatre, etc.
- NEP 2020 includes the three-language policy which states that whenever possible, the medium of instruction until at least grade 5 but preferable till grade 8 and beyond it will be any language. And Sanskrit will be the mainstreamed.
- The post-graduation degree M.Phil. (master of philosophy) to be discontinued.
- Each and every student will be taught a vocational skill by his or her choice and coding will be taught from 6th class.
- There will be a compulsory internship of 10 days from the 6th class with local trades or crafts.
- NEP 2020 mainly focuses on the practical knowledge and skill development which will begin from 6th class.
- For admission in all the higher education institutes , there will be one common entrance exam which is held by NTE and this exam is not compulsory for all the students, it will be optional.
- There will be multiple entry and exit system, people can start and end their education after a period of time and they are allowed to join back their studies ,without losing any credits.
- NEP 2020 also promotes the foreign study destinations. It is compulsory for each and every institution to have an international student’s office to host foreign students.
- NEP 2020 allows foreign colleges to set up their colleges in India and they have special rules and regulations to set up their campuses.
Implementation of NEP 2020
As we all know, in 1968, National Education Policy was delayed because of a shortage of funds. And today also it is very difficult to implement the New education policy 2020 immediately. For implementation, the government needs sufficient funds.
The New Education Policy 2020 is a totally new stage of education. Government set a target to implement the entire policy till 2040 because NEP 2020 is very vast and broad and needs a proper direction to follow.
As we all know education is a concurrent subject i.e., for both State and Centre governments to make laws on it. and the reforms can only be implemented with the decision combinedly taken by both the government (state and central).
However, the government needs a proper plan for implementation and a specific body such as the HRD Ministry, NCERT, all the educational bodies in India for implantation.
Challenges in Implementation
The challenges that might be faced by our country for the success of the new policy in India might include-
- We need to open new universities every week for 15 years to complete the goal for doubling the gross enrolment ratio in higher education by 2035. And it is a herculean task for India to open universities every week .
- It is very difficult to make education available for each and every child. In India there are more than 2 crore children who are currently not in school and for that we need to set up around 50 schools in a week for 15 years to accomplish the target for educating all children in India.
- As we all know because of covid, the big challenge for the government is funding. For a buildup school, universities and appointing facility and teacher for children, we need more funding.
- We need to create a large pool of trained as well as more educated and capable teachers.
- It is great challenges for our country to make things work online because there are so many people who don’t have an idea of internet.
Comparison: NEP 2020 and NEP 1986
NEP 1986 focuses on women empowerment, adult literacy and early childhood care whereas NEP 2020 focuses on the children’s practical knowledge. There is a broad difference between both the policies are-
- Main objective of NEP 1986 overall development of the students and women empowerment whereas NEP 2020, focuses on providing interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary liberal education of the students.
- In 1986 the structure of the education system was 10 (5+3+3)+2+3+2 . and in 2020 the education structure is suggested as 5+3+3+4+4+1.
- In 1986 the preliminary education started at the 6th year of a child but in 2020 the first preliminary education starts at the age of 3 year known as a foundation stage.
- In 1986 NEP, all the undergraduate and postgraduate exams were based on the entrance exam except NIT and medical colleges. And now in NEP 2020 all the admission for PG or UG is based on national testing agency examination held by the HEI at the national level.
- Earlier the under graduation programme are for three year or four year and post-graduation programme are of two year with specialization focus but now in the new policies the under graduation programme are of four year with the provision to exit after one year with diploma and re-enter whenever you want to complete a degree and post-graduation will be for one or two year with more focus on specialization and research.
- Earlier in the 1986 Policy, no foreign universities were allowed to function directly in India but now in policies of 2020, the top ranked foreign universities will be allowed to function in India .
- In 1986 Policies, students had a choice based credit system but now students have the liberty to choose any subject or any stream for their career.
- Earlier, teaching and learning methods mainly focused on classroom training but now there will be more research work, field work and more practical knowledge.
- The expected ratio of the student faculty was 20:1 in 1986 in the higher education system but now in 2020 policies the student faculty ratio will be 30:1.
- Online distance learning is being permitted by all the universities in the 2020 Policy whereas in 1986 only accredited and permitted universities allowed online distance learning.
- Earlier there were no multiple entry and exit available for the people but now anyone can get into the multiple entry and exit in the education system which means any one can complete their education anytime.
- All the things in the 1986 policy are available physically but now in 2020 NEP all the things focus on the online library ,online study books and journals.
PARAKH is a government scheme which stands for Performance,Assessment,Review and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development. On 11th September, Prime Minister Modi addressed the conclave on “School Education of the 21st Century” and announced the establishment of a National assessment Centre.
This assessment center is to analyze and improve the overall evaluation system. The scheme evaluates higher order skills which include analysis, critical thinking and conceptual clarity. Now a student will have more practical knowledge and field work less than the bookish one. This autonomous institution under the union education minister will set norms for student assessment and evaluation for all school boards across the country, most of which currently follow norms set by the state government.
We know education is the only key for success. New Education policy 2020 is a very broad changing concept for our nation’s education system. No child will be left behind to gain education according to the new education policy 2020. All the study for students shifts from memorization to ‘learning to learn’, it fosters a new generation of thinkers and is practical. NEP 2020 is also helpful because this policy not only focuses on the main subjects like science, math , it mainly focuses on the arts and extra-curricular activities which will help to create a more diverse society. India is opening the door for more opportunities as well as towards the world. Our nation allows international universities for the sake of the development of our nation. The Indian higher education system is moving from teacher centred to student centric, information centric to knowledge centric, marks centric to skills centric, examination centric to experimental centric, learning centric to research centric, and choice centric to competency centric. The future of New Education Policy 2020 will all depend on the political will and the system that it is going to offer to the nation. NEP 2020 is a 21st century and 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.
 MRPA, available at: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/102549/1/MPRA_paper_102549.pdf (last visited on 21st April 2021).
 IJSER, available at: https://www.ijser.org/researchpaper/A-Critical-Analysis-and-a-Glimpse-of-New-Education-Policy–2020.pdf (last visited on 21st April 2021)
BY AAKRITI GUPTA | AMITY LAW SCHOOL,NOIDA UTTAR PRADESH